Authors: Rasha Mqableh and Aya W. Akawi, Yarmouk University, Jordan | January 2023​

This report summarizes the country reports submitted to D.Rad project from Jordan’s team studying radicalization as a phenomenon and action in Jordan in the period 2011-2021. The report describes major incidents that are considered as a turning point in identifying and (re)shaping radicalization and de-radicalization, presents a contextual framework of how radicalization erupted in the country and highlights agents and channels of radicalization and de-radicalization. It also discusses elite and public perceptions of radicalization incidents and, finally, emphasizes the role of media in radicalization and de-radicalization.

Jordan has challenged radicalization since it when faced multiple violent attacks from the 1970s to the present. This is due to Jordan’s political, religious, and socio-economic stance. Although there is no defined separation between right-wing and left-wing factions of extremism, the country mainly suffers from internal and external radicalized threats. Internal radicalization is manifested in (1) state-led actions which provoke disturbance among political parties and nationalities along with its approach in tightening its security grip justified under state security; (2) Muslim Brotherhood which is a legitimate opposing political party, (3) tribal radicalization which threatens national unity, (4) Salafi-Jihadism which promotes radical Islamic ideology; and (5) refugee radicalization which is also seen as a threat to Jordanian’s welfare and peace. External radicalization is depicted through (1) Al-Qaeda in Iraq and (2) ISIS in Syria.

When it comes to countering radicalization, the regime relates this responsibility to its own official institutions. They established de-radicalization units within its security forces and military units in which they adopt a more civil and educational path in combatting radicalization. Civil society organizations’ role in countering radicalization was restricted by the state’s policy before 2011 but was encouraged, under the supervision of the regime, to take part in preventing radicalization through implementing awareness campaigns and workshops.