D6.5 | June 2023

Authors: Sophia Solomon – Ben-Gurion University of the Negev; Giovanna Spanò – University of Florence

The democratic framework rests upon the people’s (demos) sovereignty. It relies on majority-based political representation and fundamental human rights, which vary from country to country according to the socio-political circumstances and cultural context. This report offers an empirical overview of the theoretical and practical tension between developing human-like artificial intelligence (AI) technologies for social and security purposes and preserving human freedoms and rights through law. This tension has risen parallel to the sovereign state’s desire to maintain collective and individual safety among citizens while exploiting digital tools (specifically in social networks). It focuses on two main concepts emerging from the extensive development of AI technologies: discrimination and bias, inevitably resulting in inequality. In coherence with the D.Rad framework of radicalisation as a process, social exclusion that derives from inequality might pose a potential risk in leading to broader notions and feelings of Injustice and Grievance, developing and creating linkage to Alienation, resulting in Polarisation (The I-GAP spectrum).In some cases, AI machinery can assist governments in keeping citizens safe from online radicalisation, which may lead to violence. Still, in many other cases, the capability to develop suitable non-biased AI solutions directed against online radicalisation can only be accomplished in the aftermath, examining online users who posted online documentation of offline violent acts.