D3.2 Country Report | July 2021

D.Rad Research Teams

Iraq is one of the countries most exposed to instability and lack of security, due to many reasons which are the fragility and weakness of the state that leads to many hot spots of extremism and terrorism. These foci exist in ethnically or religiously homogeneous and heterogeneous societies, which we will discuss in this report. Moreover, the difference in the geography of these regions is one of the reasons.

The importance of the report about Iraq lies in the fact that this country is one of the first ranks in extremism and terrorism, so it must be highlighted and promised as a model in the study, especially it is rich in natural resources, while it was possible to invest these resources to build a new modern state instead of being submerged in extremism and terrorism.

Despite the multiplicity and abundance of hotbeds of extremism and terrorism in Iraq, the report will try to explain examples of them, according to the type and the trends of extremism. There is separatist extremism in Kirkuk governorate, which is one of the disputed areas between the federal government and the Kurdistan Regional Government of Iraq where the latter seeks secession and independence from Iraq. Likewise, there is the jihadist (religious) violence stemming from sectarian fanaticism in Anbar, which has made this vast province a hot spot for (discriminatory) ethnic and religious extremism.

The report will also deal with another example of a region whose demographic composition and geography have imposed to be a hot spot where is located in a spot of land that the majorities disputed over it, at a time that historically belonged to indigenous minorities, whither it is inhabited mostly by non-Muslim societies, such as Christians of Assyrian origins, Yazidis and others, and they have faced extremism. Religiously, they were exposed to large-scale terrorist acts, which is the Nineveh Plain region.

The report also shows that diversity, difference as well as ethnic, religious and sectarian pluralism, which instead of being a factor of wealth and power in society or the state, has become a factor of weakness. It has been exploited for extremism and terrorism and to threaten coexistence, civil peace and diversity, and as we mentioned, all is due to the fragility of the state in addition to the overlapping of political decision-making forces in the state issues.

The report will try to identify the objective and subjective factors that have made these areas hot spots, and to know the challenges and obstacles that surround them in order to overcome this. The report also seeks to know the factors that help (facilitating) the spread of the phenomenon of extremism and terrorism in these areas along with the extent of their role in the growth and permanence of extremism.

The writing of the report will depend on the descriptive historical approach, whereby a return to the recent history of some phenomena of extremism and terrorism, determined by their dates and times, and a start to understanding their causes and consequences.

It will also adopt the investigative approach by standing on the views of the parties supporting or rejecting this phenomenon in its three levels (micro, miso, and macro). The report will also use the analytical method to explain the phenomenon of extremism and terrorism in Iraq. It will benefit from the available office studies regarding this phenomenon, as it is necessary to use sober studies issued by international research centers and reports of international, local and national organizations in addition to the academic studies that analyse this phenomenon. Furthermore, it is imperative to follow up on the events of extremism and terrorism through neutral and reputable media, as well as make use of the reports of Iraqi official institutions.